Anmerkungen und Quellen

Galaktische Begegnungen, APOLLO-Objekte und ATLANTIS

Ein katastrophisches Szenario für Diskontinuitäten in der Menschheitsgeschichte

von unserem Gastautor Emilio Spedicato

Dieser Beitrag von Prof. Emilio Spedicato © wurde von Bernhard Beier für nach einer englischsprachigen Fassung ins Deutsche übertragen, die online unter erschien.

[1] Whiston W.: A new theory of Earth, C.U. P., 1708

[2] Velikovsky I.: Earth in upheaval, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1955

[3] Velikovsky I.: Ages in chaos, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1953

[4] Velikovsky I.: Oedipus and Akhnaton, Doubleday, 1960

[5] Velikovsky I.: Ramses II and his time, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1978

[6] Velikovsky I.: Peoples of the sea, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1977

[7] Clube V. and Napier B.: The cosmic serpent, Faber and Faber, 1982

[8] Velikovsky I.: Worlds in collision, Gollancz, 1950

[9] Whetherill G. W.: Apollo objects, Scientific American, 240, 38, 1979

[10] Clube V. and Napier B.: A theory of terrestrial catastrophism, Nature 282, 455, 1979

[11] Alvarez L. W.: Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, Science, 208, 1095, 1980

[12] Ganapathy R.: A major meteorite impact in the Earth 65 million years ago: evidence from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Science 209, 920, 1980

[13] Smit J. and Hertogen J.: An extraterrestrial event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Nature 285, 198, 1980

[14] Clube V. and Napier B.: Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism, Quart. Journal. Royal Astron. Soc. 23, 45, 1982

[16] Clube V. and Napier B.: Comet capture from molecular clouds: a dynamic al constraint on star and planet formation, Monthly Notices Royal Astron. Soc. 208, 575, 1984

[17] Clube V. and Napier B.: The micro structure of terrestrial catastrophism, Preprint, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, 1984

[18[ Cohen R.S. et al.: Molecular clouds and galactic spiral structures, Astroph. Journal. 239, 53, 1980

[19] Edmunds M. G. and Solomon P. M.: Giant molecular clouds in the Galaxy, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980

[20] Krinov E. L.: Giant meteorites, Pergamon Press, 1966

[21] Watson J.: Mateorites: classification and properties, Springer Verlag, 1974

[22] Hartmann W. K.: Relative crater production rates on planets, Icarus 31, 260, 1977

[23] Hartmann W. K.: Cratering in the solar system, Scientific American 236, 84, 1977

[24] Whetherill G. W.: Where do the meteorites come from? A reevaluation of the Earth crossing Apollo objects as sources of chondritic meteorites, Geochem. and Cosmochem. Acta 40, 1297, 1976

[25] Yabushita S.: A statistical study of the evolution of the orbits of long period comets, Monthly Notices Royal Astron. Soc. 187, 44, 1979

[26] Napier B. and Staniucha M.: Interstellar planetesimals I: dissipation of the primordial cloud of comets by encounters with massive nebulae, Monthly Notices Royal Astr. Soc. 198, 723, 1982

[27] Oort J. H.: The structure of the cloud of comets surrounding the solar system and a hypothesis concerning its origin, Bull. Astr. Inst. Netherland 11, 91, 1950

[28] Grieve R. A. R. and Dence M. R.: The terrestrial cratering record II: The crater production rate, Icarus 38, 230, 1979

[29] Rampino M. R. and Stothers R. B.: Terrestrial mass extinctions, cometary impacts and the Sun's motion perpendicular to the galactic plane, Nature 308, 709, 1984

[30] Alvarez W. and Muller R. A.: Evidence from crater ages for periodic impacts on the Earth, Nature 308, 718, 1984

[31] Doake C. S. M.: Climatic change and geomagnetic field reversals: a statistical correlation, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 38, 313, 1978

[32] Mc Crea W. H.: Long time scale fluctuations in the evolution of the Earth, Doc. Royal Soc. London Ser. A, 375, 1981

[33] Fischer A. G. and Arthur M. A.: in Soc. Econ. Paleont. Spec. Publ. 25, 19, 1977

[34] Raup D. M. and Sepkoski J. J.: in Proc. Nation. Acad. Scienc. USA, 81, 801, 1984

[35] Everhart E.: The origin of short period comets, Astrophys. Letters 10, 131, 1972

[36] Everhart E.: Examination of several ideas of comet origins, Astron. Journ. 78, 329, 1973

[37] Whithmire D. P. and Jackson A. A. IV: Are period exctinctions driven by a distant solar companion? Nature 308, 713, 1984

[38] Davis M. et al: Extinction of species by periodic comet showers, Nature 308, 715, 1984

[39] Davies J.: Mission to the asteroids, New Scientist 100, 490, 1983

[40] Ganapathy R.: The Tunguska explosion of 1908: discovery of meteoritic debris near the explosion site and at the South Pole, Science 220, 1158, 1983

[41] Turco R. et al., in Icarus 50, 1, 1982

[42] Brown J. C. and Hughes D. W.: Tunguska's comet and nonthermal C14 production in the atmophere, Nature 268, 512, 1977

[43] Opik E. J.: On the catastrophic effect of collisions with celestial bodies, Irish Astron. Journ. 5, 34, 1958

[44] Stommel H. and Stommel E.: The year without a summer, Scientific American, 240, 134, 1979

[45] Lamb H. H., Climate, Methuen, 1977

[46] Francheteau J.: The oceanic crust, Scientific American 249, 68, 1983

[47] Burchfield B. C.: The continental crust, Scientific American, 249, 86, 1983

[48] Gault D.E. et al: Tsunami generation by pelagic planetoid impact, Preprint, Ames Research Center, 1979

[49] Strelitz R. A.: Meteorite impact in the ocean, Proceedings Lunar Planet. Sc. Conf., 2799, 1979

[50] Emiliani C. et al.: Earth Science Letters 55, 317, 1981

[51] O'Keefe J. D. and Ahrens T. J.: Nature 298, 123, 1982

[52] Puopeau G.: Coup de météorite sur le Crétacé, La Recherche, 13, 1464, 1982

[53] Hoyle F., and Wickramasinghe, Comets, ice ages and ecological catastrophes, Astroph. Space Sc. 53, 523, 1978

[54] Hoyle F., Ice, Hutchinson and Company, 1981

[55] Chalikov D. V. and Verbitsky M. Y.: A new Earth climate model, Nature 308, 609, 1984

[56] Bryson R. A.: A perspective on climatic change, Science 184, 753, 1974

[57] Ruddiman W. F. et al.: Oceanic evidence for the mechanism of rapid northern hemisphere glaciation, Quaternary Res: 13, 33, 1980

[58] Yapp C. G. and Epstein S.: Climatic implications of D/H ratios of meteoric water over North-America (9500-2200 BP) as inferred from ancient wood cellulose C-H hydrogen, Earth Planet. Sc. Letters 34, 333, 1977

[59] Bramwell J.: Lost Atlantis, Cobden Sanderson, 1937

[60] Spanuth J.: Atlantis, Tubingen, 1965

[61] Carpenter R.: Discontinuity in Greek history, Cambridge University Press, 1965

[62] Luce J. V.: The end of Atlantis, Thames and Hudson, 1969

[63] Broecker W. S., The Ocean, Scientific American, 249, 100, 1983

[64] Heyerdhal T.: Kon-Tiki expedisjonen, Gydendal Norsk Forlag, 1948

[65] Heyerdhal T.: The RA expeditions, Book Club Associates, 1972

[66] Heyerdahl T.: Sea routes to Polynesia, Allen and Unwin, 1968

[67] Sarmiento de Gamboa P.: History of the Incas, Hakluyt Soc. 1907

[68] Kramer S. N.: L'histoire commence a Sumer, Arthoud, 1975

[69] Sandars N. K.: The epics of Gilgamesh, Penguin, 1964

[70] Woolley L.: Excavations at Ur, London, 1954

[71] Ceram C. W.: Goetter, Graeber und Gelehrte. Roman der Archaeologie, Rohwolt Verlag, 1967

[72] Heyerdhal T.: The Tigris expedition, Allen and Unwin, 1980

[73] La Fay H.: Ebla: splendor of an unknown empire, National Geographic 154, 730, 1978

[74] Anati E.: Capo di Ponte, Centro dell'arte rupestre camuna, Studi Camuni 1, 1978

[75] Anati E.: La datazione dell'arte preistorica camuna, Studi Camuni 2, 1974

[76] Anati E.. Origini della civiltá camuna, Studi Camuni 3, 1974

[77] Anati E.: Valcamonica: 10.000 anni di storia, Studi Camuni 8, 1980

[78] Wolbach W., Lewis R. and Anders E., Cretaceous extinctions: evidence for wildfires and search for meteoritic material, Science 230, 167-170, 1985

[79] Hildebrand A. and Boynton W., Proximal Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact deposits in the Caribbean, Science 248, 843-847, 1990

[80] Bohor and Seitz, Cuban K/T catastrophe, Nature 344, 539, 1990

[81] Clube V. and Napier W., Mankind's future: an astronomical view: comet, ice ages and catastrophes, Interdisciplinary Sciences Reviews II, 236-247, 1986

[82] Clube V. and Napier W., The cometary break-up hypothesis re-examined: a reply, Monthly Notices Royal. Astr. Soc. 225, 55-58, 1987

[83] Hsu K, Terrestrial catastrophe caused by cometary impact at the end of the Cretaceous, Nature 285, 201-203, 1980

[84] Officer C., Hallam A., Drake C.and Devine J., Late Cretaceous and paroxysmal Cretaceous/Tertiary extinctions, Nature, 326, 143-149, 1987

[85] Whitmire D. and Matese J., Periodic comet showers and planet X, Nature 313, 36-38, 1985

[86] Van Flandern T., Kaplan G., Plukkinen K., Santoro E., Seidelmann P., Bull Amer. Astr. Soc. 12, 830, 1980

[87] Hughes D. W., Nature 281, 11, 1979

[88] Grieve R., Terrestrial impact structures, Amer. Earth Plan. Soc. 15, 245-279, 1987

[89] Melosh H., Impact cratering: a geologic process, Oxford University Press, 1988

[90] Jansa L. and Pe-Piper G., Identification of an underwater extraterrestrial impact crater, Nature 327, 612 -614, 1987

[91] Rogers G., Oceanic plateaus as meteorite impact signatures, Nature 299, 341-342, 1982

[92] Broecker W., Ewing H. and Heezen B., Evidence for an abrupt change in climate close to 11.000 years ago, Amer. Journ of Science 258, 429-448, 1960

[93] Zhirov N. F., Atlantis, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1970

[94] Kukal Z., Atlantis in the light of modern research, Earth Science Reviews 21, Special Issue, 1984

[95] Warren P., Absolute dating of the Bronze Age eruption of Thera (Santorini), Nature 308, 492-493, 1984

[96] Wendell P., Wooding, Browen S., Burbank W., Géologie de la République d' Haiti, Service géologique de la République d' Haiti, 1924

[97] Butterlin J., La géologie de la République d' Haiti et ses rapports avec celle des régions voisines. Mémoires de l'Institut Français d' Haiti, 406 - 407, 1954

[98] Pinet P.R., Popence P. and Nell D.F., Gulf Stream: reconstruction of Cenozoic flow patterns over the Blake plateau, Geology 9, 266-270, 1981

[99] Keffer T., Martinsson D.G., Collins B. H., The position of the Gulf Stream during Quaternary glaciations, Science 241, 440 - 442, 1988

[100] Morell V., Confusion in earliest America, Science 248, 439-441, 1990

[101] Muck 0., Atlantis, die Welt von der Sinflut, Olter, 1956

[102] Gurdijeff G.I., Rencontres avec des hommes remarquables, Julliard, 1960

[103] Ben-Menahem A., 1975, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 11, 1975

[104] Deacon E., Weather 37, 1982

[105] La Violette P., Monthly Notices Royal Astr. Soc. 224, 1987.

[106] Spedicato E., Arguments for a super Tunguska impact over the Pacific Ocean around year 1178 AD, Preprint, University of Bergamo, 1997

[107] Hapgood C., The Earth shifting crust, Chilton, Philadelphia, 1958

[109] Barbiero F., On the possibility of very rapid shifts of the poles, Report DMSIA 7/97, University of Bergamo, 1997

[110] Rand and Rose Flem-Ath, When the sky fell, in search of Atlantis, Stoddard Publishing, Don Mills, 1995

[111] Lehman J. and Kergwa L.D., Sudden changes in North Atlantic circulation during the last glaciation, Nature 356, 757-762, 1992

[112] Björck S. et al., Syncronized terrestrial-atmosferic deglacial records and the North Atlantic, Science 274, 1155-1160, 1996

[113] Colinvaux P.A. et al., A long pollen record for lowland Amazonia: forest and cooling in glacial times, Science 274, 85-88, 1996

[114] Coe R.S., Prévot M. and Camps P., New evidence for extraordinarily rapid change of the geomagnetic field during a reversal, Nature 374, 687-692, 1996

[115] Ostro S.J. et al., Radar images of asteroid 4179 Toutatis, Science 270, 80-83, 1995

[116] Hudson R.S. and Ostro S.J., Shape and non principal axis spin rate of asteroid 4179 Toutatis, Science 270, 84-86, 1995

[117] Farinella P. et al., Asteroids falling into the Sun, Nature 371, 314-317, 1994

[118] Brunini A., Orbital evolution of the terrestrial planets as a result of close encounters and collisions with planet-crossing asteroids, Planet. Space Sc. 41, 747-751, 1993

[119] Pettinato G., La saga di Gilgamesh, Rusconi, Milano, 1993

[120] Wetherill G.W., Where do the Apollo objects come from?, Icarus 76, 1-18, 1988

[121] Bimson J.J, Redating the Exodus and Conquest, PhD. Dissertation, University of Sheffield, 1985

[122] James P, Thorpe I.J., Kokkinos N., Morkot R. and Frankish J., Centuries of darkness, Jonathan Cape, London, 1991

[123] Rohl D., A test of time, the Bible from myth to history, Random Century, London, 1995

[124] Talbott D., The Saturn myth, New York, 1980

[125] Grubaugh R., A proposed model for the polar configuration, Aeon 3, 39-48, 1993

[126] Spedicato E. and Huang Z., Numerical solution of the planetary alignement equations, Report DMSIA 8/97, University of Bergamo, 1997

[127] Barbiero F., La Bibbia senza segreti, Rusconi, Milano, 1988

[128] Tollmann A. and E., Und die Sintflut gab es doch. Vom Mythos zur historischen Wahreit, Droener Knaur, Munich, 1993

[129] West J.A., Serpent in the sky, Julian Press, New York, 1979

[130] Bauval R. and Gilbert A., The Orion mystery. Are the pyramids a map of heaven?, Atrium Press, London, 1994

[131] Hancock G., Fingerprints of the Gods, Heinemann, London, 1995

[132] Middleton C. T., System of geography, London, 1778

[133] Barbiero F., Civilta' sotto ghiaccio, Nord Editrice, Milano, 1974

[134] Patten D., Catastrophism and the old Testament, the Mars-Earth conflict, Pacific Meridian Publishing, Seattle, 1988

[135] Thiele E.R. , The mysterious numbers of the Hebrew kings, Eerdmans, Gran Rapids, 1965

[136] Heinsohn G., Abraham and the chronology of Mesopotamia and Egypt, Communication, Workshop on Velikovsky Reconsidered, University of Toronto, August 1990

[137] Heinsohn G., Die Sumerer gab es nicht, Frankfurt, 1988

[138] Pinotti R., I continenti perduti, Mondadori, Milano, 1995

[139] Fasold D., The ark of Noah, Wynwood Press, New York, 1988

[140] Egeria, Diario di viaggio, Edizioni Paoline, Milano, 1992

[141] Spedicato E., Numerical analysis of planetary distances in a polar model, Aeon 5, vol. 4, 23-29, 1999

[142] D. Fargion and A. Doron, Tidal effects of passing planets and mass extinctions, Preprint SIS, Astro-ph/9802265, February 1998

[143] A. Dar, A. Laor and N. Shaviv, Life extinction by cosmic ray jets, Preprint SIS, Astrophysical Journal, May 1997

[144] J.I. Collar, Clumpy cold dark matter and biological extinctions, Physics Letter B, 368, 1760-173, 1996

[145] S. Abbas, A. Abbas and S. Mohanty, Double mass extinctions and the volcanogenic dark matter scenario, Preprint SIS, Astro-ph/9805142, May 1998

[146] T. Van Flandern, Dark Matter, Missing Planets and New Comets, Paradoxes Resolved, Origins Illuminated, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, 1993

[147] S. M. Stanley and X. Yang, A double mass extinction at the end of the paleozoic era, Science 266, 1340-1344, 1994

[148] M.J. Benton, Diversification and extinction in the history of life, Science 269, 52-58, 1995

[149] A. Leicht and A. Varisht, Supernovas and extinctions, preprint, 1998

[150] Jewitt D. and Luu J.X., Nature, 362, 730, 1993

[151] A. Del Popolo and E. Spedicato, Kuiper belt evolution due to dynamical friction, Report DMSIA 98/14, University of Bergamo, 1998

[152] V. Castellani, Quando il mare sommerse l' Europa, Ananke, 1999

[153] F. Vinci, Omero nel Baltico, Palombi, 1998

[154] Claudius Aelianus, Poikile historia (translated as Storie varie by C. Bevegni, Adelphi, Milano, Theopompus quoted at p. 92)

[155] R. Schoch, Redating the great Sphinx of Giza, KMT, 3:2, 52-60

[156] K. Salibi, Secrets of the Bible people, Saqi Books, London, 1988

[157] K. Salibi, The Bible came from Arabia, Naufal, Beirut, 1996

[158] K. Salibi, The historicity of biblical Israel. Studies in Samuel I and II, Nabu, London, 1998

[159] Spedicato E., Numerics and geography of Gilgamesh travels towards the heart of Asia, University of Bergamo, Report DMSIA Serie Miscellanea, 1999

[160] R. Dufrenne, La vallée des merveilles et les mythologies indo-européennes, Studi Camuni, XII, 1997

[161] A. Collins, Gateway to Atlantis, preprint, 1999