Die Crania aus den Mounds im St. Francis County, Arkansas, 1888
Den folgenden Untersuchungsbericht von Dr. med. F. W. Langdon, der 1888 unter dem Titel "MOUND CRAMIA FROM ST. FRANCIS COUNTY, ARKANSAS" in der Zeitschrift AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN erschienen ist, präsentieren wir hier vorläufig noch in der englischsprachigen Originalfassung. Leider waren wir bisher nicht in der Lage, eine qualitativ adäquate Übersetzung dieses fachsprachlich anspruchsvollen medizinischen Untersuchungsberichts diverser Humanrelikte zu erstellen, die nur einige Monate vor Erstellung des Reports aus einem Mound im St. Francis County, Arkansas, exhumiert wurden, und - wie die nachfolgend dokumentierten Befunde Dr. Langdons zeigen - eine ganze Reihe anatomischer Anomalien (darunter auch Gigantismus) aufwiesen. Jede Form kompetenter Unterstützung bei der Erstellung einer Übersetzung ins Deutsche würden wir äußerst dankbar begrüßen.
Im September 2011
The human crania and other bones herein mentioned were exhumed from a mound on the banks of "Fifteen-Mile Bayou' in St. Francis county, Arkansas, during the month of March, 1888, by Mr C. W. Riggs, to whose kindness and care I am indebted for the specimens. The mound referred to is one of a circle embracing twelve or fifteen similar but smaller ones; and the depth at which the specimens were obtained varied from three to nine feet.
The circle of mounds, of which no measurements were taken unfortunately, is situated on a ridge in the bottom land. Besides the specimens here described there were probably fifteen or more skeletons less perfectly preserved, which were not thought worth removal.
Skull No. 60  is that of an adult, probably male, about 45 years; brachycephalic; ponetal index (index of breadth) .825; internal capacity not measured. The muscular prominences and depressions well marked; superior maxillae slightly prognathous; teeth of upper jaws all present excepting wisdom teeth, which have been naturally lost and the alveolus absorbed; cusps of teeth are teeth are flattened and worn through to the dentine at their apices.
The most remarkable feature of this skull is the almost complete occlusion of both external auditory meatuses, by bony growths (exostoses) springing from the posterior wall of the ear canal. The sagital and coronal sutures are almost obliterated by synostosis; and the lambdoidal presents a large triangular wormian bone ("inca" bone) at its apex. The occiput is markedly flattened asymmetrically. In its general form and state of preservation it could not be differentiated from an average skull from the Madisonville (Ohio) prehistoric cemetery.
Skull No. 61 is an adult, smooth, light-boned brachycephalic, of fair capacity (not measured). With the (exception of the nasals the bones of face are wanting. Index of breadth, .86. The bones are light and spongy in texture and synostosis is complete — of the coronal, sagital and middle two thirds of lambdoidal sutures. By reason of a post-mortem fracture of the base, the sphenoidal sinuses are laid open and are seen to extend into the basilar process of the occipal bone. A portion of the root of both orbits has disappeared by absorption. The general characteristics are thus those pertaining to senility. As the bones ot face are wanting, the teeth are not available as age indicators. Looking at the interior of this specimen, the Srooves for the meningeal arteries are remarkably wide and eep, and the internal irontal crest unusually long and prominent.
Skull No. 62 is an adult, rough, dense, heavy skull, with very thick bones and very distinct sutural separation; brachycephalic; index of breadth, .ooo. Internal capacity, rather less than the two preceding. The teeth are but slightly worn, (only one upper jaw present and the lower jaw absent). Its muscular ridges are highly developed, and its general features are such as would indicate a vigorous male of twenty-five or thirty years. The outline of nasal bones is such as would suggest a strongly Roman profile. The temporal process of malar bone is fairly marked in this and in the preceding specimen.
Specimen No. 63 is an adult lower jaw bone, remarkable for its great size and especially the width between the condyles; indicating a correspondingly broad skull. The teeth indicate an age of thirty to thirty-five years, the cusps being flattened. An idea of its great size will be conveyed by the following measurements:
Between outer extremities of condyles 14.0 C. M.
Between inner extremities of condyles 9.4 "
S3rmphy8i8 to post, margin of ramus just above angle 11.3 "
Between angles, outside measurement ^11.5 "
Width of rami just below neck of condyle — Right side... 3.9 "
Leftside 3.7 "
Height of body at symphysis 4.6"
Height of body opposite nrst molar 3.8 "
The entire bone is very massive and the muscular markings in correspondence with its size. Several small osteophytic process are apparent in the inner surfaces of the alveolar processes. A shallow rounded cavity, large enough to contain half a pea, appears on the inner surface of body on left side, just anterior to the angle and immediately above the lower border. The size of the foramina (inferior dental and mental) are in correspondence with the general character of the bone.
No. 64 also an inferior maxilla, is a small, smooth, light-textured, slightly marked bone, evidently that of a young female.
Amongst the remaining bones of the collection is an adult humerus, remarkable only for its very small size; and a specimen of complete sacro-iliac synostosis.
In another mound of the same group, opened. by Mr. Riggs, was found, at a depth of seven feet, a mass of charred grass cloth ,very coarse in texture, mersuring about six square feet in area and from one to four inches in thickness. A portion of this has been donated to the Cincinnati Society ot Natural History and is now in its anthropological collection.
F. W. Langdon, M. D.
Anmerkungen und Quellen
For reference to other examples of these Interesting growths in prehlstorie races see Langdon In Journal Cln. Society Nat. History, IV, p. 237, et seq.; siehe auch: Langdon, Journal Cintl. Soc. Nat. Hist., IV, 243.
- Remark: Numbers refer to my own catalogue.
Stephen Denison Peet, The American antiquarian and oriental journal (electronic serial) online, (page 85 of 88), dort unter: MOUND CRANIA FROM ST. FRANCIS COUNTY, ARKANSAS
- 1) unten: David Benbennick bei Wikimedia Commons, unter: File:Map of Arkansas highlighting Saint Francis County.svg
- Bildbearbeitung durch Atlantisforschung.de